The reactive element serves for the alignment of the liquid flow from the turbine to the blade wheel and vice versa.
The first case appears more frequently because the reactive element is near the axis of the output shaft and it is not difficult to connect it with the standing case.
The torque on the output shaft equals to the torque of engine and the torque of reactive wheel. Blades in all wheels are not radial, but suitably curved.
The more curved blades are, the higher multiple of torque is achieved; in practice we achieve double to triple torque.
Losses occur in the hydrodynamic converter (generally of 8 – 15%). These losses are eliminated by a lockup clutch which is active for higher speed gear.